Mughal Emperor Shahjahan Life Story and Biography
Category : IAS Preparation
Friends, you will read about the entire history of Shah Jahan and his life story, marriage, son and the wars he fought in this article-
Mughal Emperor Shahjahan Life History and Biography-
Shahjahan’s childhood name was Khurram. Shah Jahan was born in Lahore on 5 January 1592. The name of the mother of Shahjahan was Manvati, whom we also know as Jagat Gosai. Manvati was the daughter of King Uday Singh of Kota State of Marwar. Khurram was very dear to his grandfather- Mughal Emperor Akbar. Pleased by the southern victory of Khurram, Jehangir honored him with the title of “Shah Jahan”.
History of Shahjahan’s Education-
Mughal Emperor Shahjahan was very skilled at studying in his childhood and hence his education was properly arranged since childhood. He had a good knowledge of Persian language and literature, he had studied geography, economics, history and politics, also he had good skill in running the weapons. Apart from this Khurram was also very skillful in horse riding.
History of Shahjahan Wedding-
Shahjahan was married to Asim Khan’s daughter, Arjumand Bano Begum, and at the time of his marriage he was 20 years old. Later this Arjumand Bano Begum became famous as Mumtaz Mahal in history. Since his childhood, he was rich in singular talent, so his reputation and post went on increasing steadily. In 1607, the principality of Khurram was made 8000 Jaat and 5,000 riders and after 1 year it was also given the estate of Hisar Firoza. In 1617, on the request of Noorjahan, Mansab of Shah Jahan was given 30000 and 20000 passengers. Victory of Mewar and his success in the South is a successful proof of his talent.
Children of Shahjahan-
Shahjahan had four sons. Whose names were Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. The struggle for kingdom and throne began among Shahjahan children. Aurangzeb succeeded in this struggle, and as a result, he became the King of Mughal Empire.
Shah Jahan’s Enthronization-
Shah Jahan was seated on the throne after Jahangir’s death. His beautiful enthronization ceremony was held on 6 February 1628 AD in Agra. A lot of fun and celebration was celebrated on this occasion.Warlords were promoted and the prizes were given. After the reign of the throne, he had ended the revolt of Jagat Singh and Khanjahan Lodi.He also defeated the Portuguese in the war and invaded Golconda, Bijapur and Ahmednagar to strengthen its empire. According to historians, Shah Jahan was a more hardcore Muslim than Jahangir and Akbar. After sitting on the throne he did the first thing that he stopped use of the solar year in state work and started the use of Moon Year and the use of Hijri San.
Death of Mughal Emperor shahjahan-
Shah Jahan and his daughter Jahanara Begum were kept in the Agra Fort and there they were closely monitored. Both father and daughter were kept in captivity for nearly eight years in Agra. He made many attempts to free himself from this prison, but all his efforts were in vain and with all these efforts, all his enemies became more alert, and as soon as his enemies came to know about their efforts, they started to give more pain and suffering to Shahjahan. Because of those efforts Shahjahan had almost stopped getting ordinary facilities. Now no man could meet him in the absence of the soldiers of Aurangzeb. And all the letters written by him started to be tested, without first giving any letter to him, his enemies themselves read him, and finally he was also forbidden to write letters with his own hands. Due to lack of ordinary facilities, ShahJahan was seriously ill in 1666, his daughter Jahanara served him but it did not benefit, and finally, on January 22, 1666, Shahjahan died in Agra Fort. After his death, his daughter Jahanara wanted that her mass came out of great pomp, but Aurangzeb did not give order for that. Shahjahan had done very commendable work for Agra residents and his death caused great anguish to the Agra residents, Agra residents began praising King Shahjahan and spreading his great work. At that time the situation of Jahanara was extremely miserable. After the death of Shahjahan, she went to Delhi and died there in 1681.
Monuments built by Shahjahan-
Shah Jahan had special interest in building and architecture. In Agra, he built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahal, apart from this, he built the Moti Masjid in Agra, Red Fort of Delhi, Jama Masjid etc.
Mayur Throne or Takht-e-Touse-
Shahjahan had constructed the Mayur Throne. We know this as Takht-e-Touse. Takht-e-Touse was constructed with precious gems and kohinoor diamonds. In this throne there were 12 pillars and 2 peacocks present. Among these two peacocks, the tree was carved with diamond, pearl, emerald and red beads, which was extremely decorative. Nadir Shah took the Muayur throne to Iran in 1739 AD.